The latest and the most awaited technology are here! With some of its drastic changes!! Internet Protocol version 6 which is IPv6 is the most up-to-date version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communication protocol that provides recognition and setting system for computers on systems and routes traffic over the Internet. IPv6 was deployed by the Internet Engineering Task Force to contract with the long-expected crisis of IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 obsolete the old Internet protocol version which is IPv4.
Prior to launching IPv6 Address format, we shall gaze into Hexadecimal Number System. Hexadecimal is a positional number system that employs the base of 16. To stand for the values in a comprehensible format, this system uses 0-9 symbols to signify values from zero to nine and A-F to signify values from ten to fifteen. Every digit in Hexadecimal can signify values from 0 to 15.
Address Structure of IPv6
An IPv6 address is complete of 128 bits divided into eight 16-bits blocks. Each block is then changed into 4-digit Hexadecimal numbers split by colon symbols.
For instance, given ahead is a 128-bit IPv6 address signifying in binary format and alienated into eight 16-bits blocks:
0010000000000001 0000000000000000 0011001000111000 1101111111100001 0000000001100011 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 1111111011111011
Each block is then transformed into Hexadecimal and separated by ‘:’ symbol:
Even after switching to Hexadecimal format, IPv6 address stays long. IPv6 offers some rules to shorten the address. The rules are as follows:
Rule.1: Cast off leading Zero (es):
In Block 5, 0063, the leading two 0s can be omitted, such as (5th block):
Rule.2: If two of more blocks hold uninterrupted zeroes, skip them all and reinstate with dual colon sign::, such as (6th and 7th block):
Successive blocks of zeroes can be reinstated only once by:: so if there are still blocks of zeroes in the address, they can be shriveled down to a single zero, such as (2nd block):
IPv6 Address Types
Mounting the IP address pond was one of the chief forces behind expanding IPv6. It employs a 128-bit address, meaning that we have a maximum of 2¹²⁸ addresses available, or 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456, or enough to give multiple IP addresses to every star in our galaxy. So, our old friend IPv6 of 32-bit dotted-quads doesn’t do the job anymore, these newfangled IPs need eight 16-bit hexadecimal colon-delimited blocks. So, they are not only long enough to complicate a person but also use numbers and alphabets. At first glance, those IPv6 addresses look like dense secret code, for instance:
Three Types of IPv6 Addresses
1) Unicast addresses.
A Unicast address performs as an identifier for a particular edge. An IPv6 packet hurled to a Unicast address is conveyed to the edge identified by that address.
2) Multicast addresses.
Multicast addresses act as an identifier for a group/set of interfaces that may be in the right place to the dissimilar nodes. An IPv6 packet delivered to a Multicast address is delivered to the multiple interfaces.
3) Anycast addresses.
Anycast addresses act as identifiers for a set of interfaces that may belong to the diverse nodes. An IPv6 packet destined for an Anycast address is sent to one of the interfaces identified by the address.
IPv6 address formats are much portable. IPv6 offers other technical benefits in adding to a better addressing space. In exacting, it authorizes hierarchical address allotment methods that make easy route aggregation over the Internet and limit the increase of routing tables. The use of multicast addressing is enlarged and simplified and provides additional optimization for the deliverance of services.